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File Systems vs. Object Storage - A typical NAS is dependent on a traditional hierarchical file system, for example ZFS. These use an index to determine where the data blocks are stored. While file systems provide excellent performance, they don't scale. A SAN has the same issues as it's effectively a file system layered on top of block storage.

Object storage organize files and data objects into containers or "buckets", each with their own unique ID or key. Access is made simply via key or ID. Metadata is stored in the object which provides better metadata management than file systems. Object storage systems also let users define the metadata stored with the object to a much greater extent. It's like valet parking i.e. you get a ticket but don't know where the car is parked. They might move the car around to occupy another space, and the garage keeps tracks of it. Now in object storage we might make copies of the data for better redundancy. Hence, it provides cloud scale.